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HEREDITY & EVOLUTION***CRASH QUIESTIONEER SA2 2011

1)      What is Genetics? What is retro virus? Define inheritance.?

2)                        Name the scientist who established the laws of inheritance.l

3)      Describe how sex is determined in human beings.Name the type-of chromosome present in I) human male and ii) human female. What will be the sex of the offspring if a sperm carrying "X' chromosome fertilizes the egg? Write the name of the insect in which similar type of sex determination takes place.3

4)      Study the given data and answer the questions following the data:

Parental            plants    cross fertilised   and             seeds collected

F1        First             Generation offsprings

F2   Offsprings   of   self pollination of F1

Male    parents             always bare red flowers.

Female   parent   always had white flowers.

330      seeds    sown             and observed.

All       330      gave             red flowers.

Out of 44 seeds 33 seeds gave     plants   with   red flowers   and   11   seeds gave plants with white flowers.

(i) What is the term for this type of cross? (ii) What does the data of the column marked F1  indicate?

(iii) Express the gene type of the (a) parents (b) F1 progeny and (c) F2progeny

5)      What are fossils ?What do they tell us about the process of evolution?2

6)       In  evolutionary terms,  which  among-bacteria,  spider,  fish and  chimpanzee have a “better” body design? Why or why not?

7)      Answer the following questions

 (i)     Give the common name of the plant on which Mendel performed his experiments.

(ii)     What for did Mendel use the term factors and what are these factors called now?

8)      How do we know how old a fossil is?

9)      Is it true that when a new species is emerged, the old species is eliminated and why?

10)  What are the genes of blood groups  explain with the cross the resulting blood group of children ? take A{IAIA } B{IB IB}, O{IO IO}

11)  The gene type of green stemmed tomato plants is denoted as GG and that of purple stemmed tomato plants as gg when these two are crossed

12)  (i)What colour of stem would you expect in F1 progeny? (ii) Give the percentage of purple stemmed plants if F1  are self pollinated. iii.     In  what ratio would  you find the gene types CG and Gg in the F2   progeny?

13)  Why are traits acquired during life-time of an individual not inherited?

14)  Describe the structure of chromosones? Give the functions of chromosomes?

15)  How do mendel’s experiments show that traits may be dominant recessive?

16)  What are the different ways in which individuals with a particular trait may increase in population?

17)  How do mendel’s experiment show that trait are inherited independently. Give Dyhybrid cross?

18)  How is sex determined in human beings?

19)  What are species? How does the creation of variations in species promote?

20)  Why are the small number of surviving tigers a cause of worry from the point of view of genetics?

21)  How is the equal genetic contribution of male and female parents ensured in the progeny?

22)  The human beings who look so different from each other in terms of colour, size and looks are said to belong to the same species. Why? Justify your answer. 3

23)  What are homologous organs.Can the wings of a butterfly and the wings of a bat be considerd homologous organs? Why or Why not.?2

24)  Arrange the following according to their evolutionary closeness. Honey bee, bird, gorilla, and fish

25)  Whose DNA among the following do you think is most similar to that of humans and Why ?

26)  Differentiate artificial selection and natural selection:

27)  What are vestigial organs ?Name any two vestigial organs in human beings and name the organ which is vestigial for us but not in birds.2

28)  Define I)Blood Group’s  ii)Rh Factor iii)  Speciation (iv) Rudimentary eyes

29)  Name one sexually transmitted disease each caused due to bacterial infection and viral infection. How can these be prevented?                                        (2)

30)  What is the effect of DNA coppying  which is not perfectly accurate on the reproduction process?

31)  Differentiate between homologous organs and analogous organs. [2]

32)  What are fossils? What do they tell about the process of evolution?           

33)  What is genetic drift? How do we know how old fossils are??

34)  What factors could lead to the rise of a new species?

35)  What is a trait? Who contributes to the traits present in a child? How many copies of traits are present in every individual? What is the manner in which a trait is inherited and expressed in an organism?

36)  Will a tailless mouse have a tailless progeny? Justify.

37)  Define biodiversity. Why is it important to conserve biodiversity

38)  Explain any three evidences that support evolution.

39)  Which is the most accepted theory of evolution and what does it suggest about origin of species?

40)  What clue does the fossil archaeopteryx provide about evolution?

41)  Name the scientist who gave the theory of Natural selection.

42)  Mention briefly the salient features of a) Lamarck’s theory b) Darwin’s Theory

43)  How many pairs of chromosomes are there in Human beings

44)  What are the similarities in the genes and chromosomes?

45)  What similarities were found between the genes and Mendel’s factors?

46)  What is a gene? What is its function in human beings?

47)  Explain the mechanism of sex determination in human beings.

48)  Name the type of chromosome present in: human male and human female. What will be the sex of the child if a sperm carrying ‘Y’ chromosome fertilizes the egg?

49)  Give example of some animals where sex determination is regulated by the environmental factors.

50)  What is the scientific name of the plant on which Mendel perform experiments.

51)  Who gave the theory of natural selection?

52)  What for did Mendel use the term factors and what are these factors called now?

53)  Name an organism in which sex is not determined genetically.

54)  If one dog has drooping ears. Now, find out(i) What is expected type phenotypic ratio of the offspring when dogs, both the traits are crossed? (ii) What are different phenotypes observed? (iii) What is this type of cross known as?                    

55)  What is the name given to the sequence of gradual changes occurring over a period of million of years?

56)  What do you mean by: Vestigial organs, Analogous organs, Homologous organs? Give one example each.

57)  A chimpanzee can hold objects by its hands and an elephant by its trunk. Are the two organs analogous or homologous? Explain.

58)  Which is the most accepted theory of evolution and what does it suggest about origin of species?

59)  What do you mean by evolution.Give two factors leads to evolution.

60)  Describe any three methods to trace evolutionary relation between different organisms.     (5)      

61)  Give two examples of recyclable materials?

62)  What are different observed between Diploid  and  Haploid cell

63)  Describe any three methods to trace evolutionary relation between different organisms.

64)  What are different phenotypes observed? How they are different from genotypes?

65)  How can we say that all humans belong to ‘Homo Sapiens’

66)  How do genes control traits?When does speciation take place? What is genetic drift?

67)  What evidence do we have for the origin of life from inanimate matter?

68)  Write the full forms of the following.AIDS,STD,VD,HIV, WHO,NGO,IUCD,OC  

69)  What is genetic engineering ?

70)  Why are traits acquired during life-time of an individual not inherited?

71)  Differentiate with one example.  (i)  Homologous & analogous organ (ii)  Acquired traits & inherited traits                                                                                                                      

72)  A man having blood group A, marriage a woman having blood group O & they having a child. What will be the blood group of child?

73)  What is the evolutionary significance of the fossil Archaeopteryx?

74)  Write the importance of D.N.A copying in reproductions  

75)   The genotype of round and green seeds is RRyy and wrinkled and yellow seeds rrYY. When these

two are crossed

a. What are the expected gametes from the parents ?  b. What kind of progeny do you expect in F1 ?

c. What are the recessive traits in F1 ? d. Give the genotype of F1 progeny ?e. What is the expected ratio of wrinkled green in F2              

Prepared by bhatiasir For 2011 term SA2 for PCC

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